What is the Montreal Protocol?
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) is an international agreement made in 1987, which has achieved universal ratification. It was designed to stop the production and import of ozone depleting substances and reduce their concentration in the atmosphere to help protect the earth's ozone layer.
170–200 extra cases of skin cancer per million people per year in Australia without the Montreal Protocol
16 September is International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer
How did the Montreal Protocol come about?
It sits under the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The Vienna Convention was adopted in 1985, its objectives are to promote cooperation on the adverse effects of human activities on the ozone layer. It was drafted following international discussion of scientific discoveries in the 1970s and 1980s highlighting the adverse effect of human activity on ozone levels in the stratosphere and the discovery of the ‘ozone hole’.
UV Index of 25 could have been reached in Australia without the Montreal Protocol. A UV Index of 9 is considered high
40 million tonnes the amount of greenhouse gas emissions Australia has saved since 1995 by phasing out CFCs and HCFCs
Australia has contributed over $97 million to the Multilateral Fund since 1991
How does the Montreal Protocol work?
The Montreal Protocol sets out a mandatory timetable for the phase out of the main ozone depleting substances. Six amendments have been made to further strengthen the Protocol, by adding more chemicals to those covered by the Protocol and setting binding targets for countries to phase out or phase-down covered chemicals. The Multilateral Fund, created under the Montreal Protocol, provides financial assistance to developing countries to help them achieve their phase out obligations.
- 1985: Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer agreed
- 1987: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer agreed
- 1990: Creation of Multilateral Fund
- 1990: London Amendment
- 1991: Phase out of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) begins
- 1992: Copenhagen Amendment
- 1995: Vienna Amendment
- 1996: Phase out of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) begins
- 1997: Montreal Amendment
- 1999: Beijing Amendment
- 2016: Kigali Amendment
- 2019: Phase down of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) begins